“America is false to the past, false to the present, and solemnly binds herself to be false to the future.” [Frederick Douglass, 1852]
EAST ST LOUIS RIOTS–On July 2, 1917, Angry white mobs stopped trolleys and streetcars, pulling black passengers out and beating them on the streets and sidewalks. They set fire to the homes of black residents who had to choose between burning alive in their homes, or run out of the burning houses, only to be met by gunfire. In other parts of the city, African Americans were lynched against the backdrop of burning buildings.
July 25, 1972, US Government officials ADMITTED that African American’s were used in a clinical study conducted between 1932 and 1972 in Tuskegee, Alabama by the U.S. Public Health Service to study the natural progression of untreated syphilis in poor, rural black men (THIS WAS KNOWN AS THE TUSKEGEE SYPHILIS EXPERIMENT). These men were told they were receiving free health care from the U.S. government.
“Don’t be afraid.” That’s what Ruby Bridges’s mother told her on November 4, 1960. Little Ruby listened carefully to the advice. Soon, four United States federal court marshals, or officers, arrived at the Bridges family home in New Orleans, La., to drive the first grader to William Frantz Public School. A screaming mob was waiting. People stood near the building shouting. Ruby held her head high. With the marshals surrounding her, the 6-year-old walked into the school and into history
Organized by the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) in May 1961, two buses with black and white passengers set out on a “FREEDOM RIDE” TO CHALLENGE SEGREGATION IN INTERSTATE TRAVEL AND TRAVEL FACILITIES IN THE SOUTH.
Seventeen-year-old Jesse Washington was accused of the crime, and shortly after a jury found him guilty, he was seized by a mob, chained and dragged to City Hall. Author Patricia Bernstein believes Washington was still alive in this photo
Negro Motorist Green Book was a publication released in 1936 that served as a guide for African-American travelers. Because of the racist conditions that existed from segregation, blacks needed a reference manual to guide them to integrated or black-friendly establishments
In 1841, 4 black menM Henderson, A Warrick, J Seward, and C Brown were put on trial; convicted and sentenced to death. They were hanged on July 9, 1841. Tickets for a steamboat excursion to watch the executions on Duncan’s Island, sold for $1.50 to about 20,000 people, or 75 percent of St. Louis’s population at the time. *With rising tension of race/ slavery it ended with the severed heads of the four hung in the front window of Corse’s Drug Store to deter Black resistance
“An Ordinary Hero is the story of Joan Trumpauer Mulholland, a little known Civil Rights worker who did the extraordinary. As a 19 year old college student in 1961, Joan had already participated in nearly three dozen protests and sit-ins when she was arrested for participating in the Freedom Rides. After spending two months at the infamous Parchman Penitentiary on death row she went on to attend Tougaloo College and was one of the first whites to pledge Delta Sigma Theta.”
The Opelousas Massacre of Louisiana (1868), The Seymour Knights (a white supremacist group) led by Judge James Dickenson killed over between 150 to 300 African-American residents of St. Landry Parish, Louisiana for trying to join the democratic party and exercise their voting rights. Among them were twelve leaders of the Black Republicans were seized and lynched.
The Harlem Riot of 1964 (New York City Race Riot) was a racial confrontation between residents in several city boroughs and the New York City Police after an African American teenager was shot dead by an off-duty police officer on the Upper East Side of Manhattan
April 25, 1959 · Poplarville, Mississippi Mack Charles Parker, 23, was accused of raping a white woman. Three days before his case was set for trial, a masked mob took him from his jail cell, beat him, shot him and threw him in the Pearl River.