“America is false to the past, false to the present, and solemnly binds herself to be false to the future.” [Frederick Douglass, 1852]
January 23, 1957 · Montgomery, Alabama Willie Edwards Jr., a truck driver, was on his way to work when he was stopped by four Klansmen. The men mistook Edwards for another man who they believed was dating a white woman. They forced Edwards at gunpoint to jump off a bridge into the Alabama River. Edwards’ body was found three months later.
Omaha, Neb, Sept. 28, 1919 William Brown was accused of assaulting a white woman. When police arrested him a mob quickly formed which ignored orders from authorities that they disperse. The rampaging mob set the courthouse prison on fire and seized Brown. He was hung from a lamppost, mutilated, and his body riddled with bullets, then burned. Four other people were killed and fifty wounded before troops were able to restore order.
July 25, 1972, US Government officials ADMITTED that African American’s were used in a clinical study conducted between 1932 and 1972 in Tuskegee, Alabama by the U.S. Public Health Service to study the natural progression of untreated syphilis in poor, rural black men (THIS WAS KNOWN AS THE TUSKEGEE SYPHILIS EXPERIMENT). These men were told they were receiving free health care from the U.S. government.
“Don’t be afraid.” That’s what Ruby Bridges’s mother told her on November 4, 1960. Little Ruby listened carefully to the advice. Soon, four United States federal court marshals, or officers, arrived at the Bridges family home in New Orleans, La., to drive the first grader to William Frantz Public School. A screaming mob was waiting. People stood near the building shouting. Ruby held her head high. With the marshals surrounding her, the 6-year-old walked into the school and into history
Organized by the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) in May 1961, two buses with black and white passengers set out on a “FREEDOM RIDE” TO CHALLENGE SEGREGATION IN INTERSTATE TRAVEL AND TRAVEL FACILITIES IN THE SOUTH.
First Massive African American Protest in American History – July 28, 1917 – Children in New York City Participating in the Silent Protest Parade against the East St. Louis Riots. The riots in East St. Louis began when whites, angry because African Americans were employed by a factory holding government contracts, went on a rampage. Over 400,000$ worth of property was destroyed. At least 40 African Americans were killed. Men, women and children were beaten, stabbed, hanged and burned.
1966 January 3, 1966 · Tuskegee, Alabama Samuel Leamon Younge Jr., a student civil rights activist, was fatally shot by a white gas station owner following an argument over segregated restrooms.
In 1841, 4 black menM Henderson, A Warrick, J Seward, and C Brown were put on trial; convicted and sentenced to death. They were hanged on July 9, 1841. Tickets for a steamboat excursion to watch the executions on Duncan’s Island, sold for $1.50 to about 20,000 people, or 75 percent of St. Louis’s population at the time. *With rising tension of race/ slavery it ended with the severed heads of the four hung in the front window of Corse’s Drug Store to deter Black resistance
Famous image of African American flood victims lined up to get food & clothing fr. Red Cross relief station in front of billboard ironically extolling WORLD’S HIGHEST STANDARD OF LIVING/ THERE’S NO WAY LIKE THE AMERICAN WAY. Louisville, KY, 1937
Jonathan Daniels, a minister who answered Dr. King’s call to come to Selma, Alabama to support the Selma to Montgomery March. He was one of the few who stayed back after the march was over and was shot point blank in the chest by a deputized segregationist while trying to buy his fellow black protesters a Coca Cola.
The Rev. Martin Luther King Jr., African American integration leader, in bed at New Yorkís Harlem Hospital on Sept. 21, 1958 following operation to remove steel letter opener from his chest. Rev. King was in critical condition immediately after his assailant, an African American woman undergoing mental observation at Bellevue Hospital, plunged the letter opener into King
Negro Motorist Green Book was a publication released in 1936 that served as a guide for African-American travelers. Because of the racist conditions that existed from segregation, blacks needed a reference manual to guide them to integrated or black-friendly establishments
On May 15, 1916 Jesse Washington was lynched in Waco TX. Over 10,000 spectators, including city officials and police, gathered to watch the attack. Many children used their lunch hour to attend. NAACP journalist W. E. B. Du Bois published an in-depth report featuring photographs of Washington’s charred body in The Crisis, and the publicity it received helped curb public support for the practice, which became viewed as barbarism rather than an acceptable form of justice.
Seventeen-year-old Jesse Washington was accused of the crime, and shortly after a jury found him guilty, he was seized by a mob, chained and dragged to City Hall. Author Patricia Bernstein believes Washington was still alive in this photo